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FORM K. Mark One. Commission File Number: Tesla, Inc. Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter. State or other jurisdiction of. Identification No. Palo Alto , California. Address of principal executive offices. Zip Code. Title of each class. Trading Symbol s. Name of each exchange on which registered.
Common stock. The Nasdaq Global Select Market. Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule of the Securities Act. Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. Large accelerated filer.
Non-accelerated filer. Emerging growth company. Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes. PART I. Item 1. Item 1A. Risk Factors. Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments. Item 2. Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures. Item 5. Item 6. Selected Consolidated Financial Data. Item 7. Item 7A. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data. Item 9. Item 9A. Controls and Procedures. Item 9B. Other Information. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance. Item Executive Compensation. Principal Accountant Fees and Services. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.
Forward-Looking Statements. The discussions in this Annual Report on Form K contain forward-looking statements reflecting our current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements.
Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements that we make. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements. We design, develop, manufacture, sell and lease high-performance fully electric vehicles and energy generation and storage systems, and offer services related to our sustainable energy products. We generally sell our products directly to customers, including through our website and retail locations.
We also continue to grow our customer-facing infrastructure through a global network of vehicle service centers, Mobile Service technicians, body shops, Supercharger stations and Destination Chargers to accelerate the widespread adoption of our products. We emphasize performance, attractive styling and the safety of our users and workforce in the design and manufacture of our products and are continuing to develop full self-driving technology for improved safety.
We also strive to lower the cost of ownership for our customers through continuous efforts to reduce manufacturing costs and by offering financial services tailored to our products. Segment Information. We operate as two reportable segments: i automotive and ii energy generation and storage.
The automotive segment includes the design, development, manufacturing, sales and leasing of electric vehicles as well as sales of automotive regulatory credits. Additionally, the automotive segment is also comprised of services and other, which includes non-warranty after-sales vehicle services, sales of used vehicles, retail merchandise, sales by our acquired subsidiaries to third party customers and vehicle insurance revenue.
The energy generation and storage segment includes the design, manufacture, installation, sales and leasing of solar energy generation and energy storage products and related services and sales of solar energy systems incentives.
Our Products and Services. Model 3. Model 3 is a four-door mid-size sedan that we designed for manufacturability with a base price for mass-market appeal, which we began delivering in July Model Y. Model S is a four-door full-size sedan that we began delivering in June Model X is a mid-size SUV with seating for up to seven adults, which we began delivering in September Model S and Model X feature the highest performance characteristics and longest ranges that we offer in a sedan and SUV, respectively, and we manufacture both models at the Fremont Factory.
Future Consumer and Commercial Electric Vehicles. We have also announced several planned electric vehicles to address additional vehicle markets, including specialized consumer electric vehicles in Cybertruck and the new Tesla Roadster and a commercial electric vehicle in Tesla Semi.
Energy Generation and Storage. Energy Storage Products. We began deliveries of the most recent generations of Powerwall, Powerpack and Megapack, which are our lithium-ion battery energy storage products integrated with inverters and control technology, in , and , respectively. Powerwall is designed to store energy at a home or small commercial facility.
We also offer integrated systems combining energy generation and storage. Our energy storage products are currently assembled at Gigafactory Nevada. We have also develop ed software capabilities for remotely control ling and dispatch ing our energy storage systems across a wide range of markets and applications , including through our real-time energy trading platform. Solar Energy Offerings. We purchase most of the components for our retrofit solar energy systems from multiple sources to ensure competitive pricing and adequate supply.
We also design and manufacture certain components for our solar energy products. In , we commenced direct customer and channel partner sales of the third generation of our Solar Roof, which combines premium glass roof tiles with energy generation. We are ramping the volume production of Solar Roof at Gigafactory New York, and we are improving our installation capability and efficiency. Battery and Powertrain.
Our core vehicle technology competencies include powertrain engineering and manufacturing and our ability to design vehicles that utilize the unique advantages of an electric powertrain. We have designed our proprietary powertrain systems to be adaptable, efficient, reliable and cost-effective while withstanding the rigors of an automotive environment.
We offer dual motor powertrain vehicles, which use two electric motors to maximize traction and performance in an all-wheel drive configuration, and are introducing vehicle powertrain technology featuring three electric motors for further increased performance. In order to enable a greater supply of cells for our products with higher energy density at lower costs, we are currently using our expertise to develop a new proprietary lithium-ion battery cell and improved manufacturing processes.
Vehicle Control and Infotainment Software. The performance and safety systems of our vehicles and their battery packs require sophisticated control software. Control systems in our vehicles optimize performance, customize vehicle behavior, manage charging and control all infotainment functions. Self-Driving Development. We have expertise in developing technologies, systems and software to enable self-driving vehicles using primarily vision and radar-based sensors.
Our FSD Computer runs our neural networks in our vehicles, and we are also developing additional computer hardware to better enable the massive amounts of field data captured by our vehicles to continually train and improve these neural networks for real-world performance.
Currently, we offer in our vehicles certain advanced driver assist systems under our Autopilot and FSD options. Although at present the driver is ultimately responsible for controlling the vehicle, our systems provide safety and convenience functionality that relieves drivers of the most tedious and potentially dangerous aspects of road travel much like the system that airplane pilots use, when conditions permit. As with other vehicle systems, we improve these functions in our vehicles over time through over-the-air updates.
We intend to establish in the future an autonomous Tesla ride-hailing network, which we expect would also allow us to access a new customer base even as modes of transportation evolve. We leverage many of the component-level technologies from our vehicles in our energy storage products. By taking a modular approach to the design of battery systems, we can optimize manufacturing capacity among our energy storage products.
Additionally, our expertise in power electronics enables us to interconnect our battery systems seamlessly with global electricity grids while providing fast-acting systems for power injection and absorption. We have also developed the software to remotely control and dispatch our energy storage systems using our real-time energy trading platform. Solar Energy Systems. We have engineered Solar Roof over numerous iterations to combine aesthetic appeal and durability with power generation.
The efficiency of our solar energy products is aided by our own solar inverter, which also incorporates our power electronics technologies. We designed both products to integrate with Powerwall. Design and Engineering. We have established significant in-house capabilities in the design and test engineering of electric vehicles and their components and systems.
Our team has core competencies in computer aided design as well as durability, strength and crash test simulations, which reduces the product development time of new models. We have also used our capabilities to achieve complex engineering feats in stamping, casting and thermal systems, and are currently developing designs that integrate batteries directly with vehicle body structures without separate battery packs to optimize manufacturability, weight, range and cost characteristics.
We are also expanding our manufacturing operations globally while exploring ways to localize our vehicle designs and production for particular markets, including country-specific market demands and factory optimizations for local workforces. As we increase our capabilities, particularly in the areas of automation, die-making and line-building, we are also making strides in the simulations modeling these capabilities prior to construction.
Our expertise in electrical, mechanical, civil and software engineering allows us to design and manufacture our energy generation and storage products and components. We have developed software that simplifies and expedites the design process and maximizes the energy production of each solar energy system, as well as mounting hardware that facilitates solar panel installation. Sales and Marketing. Historically, we have been able to generate significant media coverage of our company and our products, and we believe we will continue to do so.
Such media coverage and word of mouth are the current primary drivers of our sales leads and have helped us achieve sales without traditional advertising and at relatively low marketing costs. Direct Sales. Our vehicle sales channels currently include our website and an international network of company-owned stores. In some jurisdictions, we also have galleries to educate and inform customers about our products, but such locations do not actually transact in the sale of vehicles.
We believe this infrastructure enables us to better control costs of inventory, manage warranty service and pricing, educate consumers about electric vehicles, maintain and strengthen the Tesla brand and obtain rapid customer feedback. We reevaluate our sales strategy both globally and at a location-by-location level from time to time to optimize our current sales channels.
Sales of vehicles in the automobile industry tend to be cyclical in many markets, which may expose us to volatility from time to time. Used Vehicle Sales. The Tesla and non-Tesla vehicles we acquire as trade-ins are subsequently remarketed, either directly by us or through third parties. We also remarket used Tesla vehicles acquired from other sources including lease returns. Public Charging. We have a growing global network of Tesla Superchargers, which are our industrial grade, high-speed vehicle chargers.
Where possible, we co-locate Superchargers with our solar and energy storage systems to reduce costs and promote renewable power. Supercharger stations are typically placed along well-traveled routes and in and around dense city centers to allow Tesla vehicle owners the ability to enjoy quick, reliable and ubiquitous charging with convenient, minimal stops. Use of the Supercharger network either requires payment of a fee or is free under certain sales programs.
We also work with a wide variety of hospitality, retail and public destinations, as well as businesses with commuting employees, to offer additional charging options for our customers. These Destination Charging and workplace locations deploy Tesla Wall Connectors to provide charging to Tesla vehicle owners who patronize or are employed at their businesses.
We also work with single-family homeowners and multi-family residential entities to deploy home charging solutions. In-App Upgrades. As our vehicles are capable of being updated remotely over-the-air, our customers may purchase additional paid options and features through the Tesla app. We expect that this functionality will also allow us to offer certain options and features on a subscription basis in the future.
We market and sell our solar and energy storage products to residential, commercial and industrial customers and utilities through a variety of channels. We emphasize simplicity, standardization and accessibility to make it easy and cost-effective for customers to adopt clean energy, while reducing our customer acquisition costs. In the U. Outside of the U.
We also sell Powerwall directly to utilities. In the case of products sold to utilities or channel partners, such partners typically sell the product and manage the installation in customer homes. We sell our commercial and utility-scale energy storage systems to customers through our U.
In certain jurisdictions, we also sell installed solar energy systems with or without energy storage to commercial customers through cash, lease and PPA transactions. Service and Warranty. Performing vehicle service ourselves provides us with the capability to identify problems and implement solutions and improvements faster, and optimize logistics and inventory better, than traditional automobile manufacturers and their dealer networks.
The connectivity of our vehicles also allows us to diagnose and remedy many problems remotely and proactively. We also currently offer extended service plans that provide coverage beyond the new vehicle limited warranties for certain models in specified regions. We provide service and repairs to our energy product customers, including under warranty where applicable.
Energy Storage Systems. If we install a system, we also provide certain limited warranties on our installation workmanship. As part of our energy storage system contracts, we may provide the customer with performance guarantees that warrant that the underlying system will meet or exceed the minimum energy performance requirements specified in the contract. For retrofit solar energy systems, we provide separate limited warranties for workmanship and against roof leaks, and for Solar Roof, we provide limited warranties for defects and weatherization.
As part of our solar energy system contracts, we may provide the customer with performance guarantees that warrant that the underlying system will meet or exceed the minimum energy generation requirements specified in the contract. Financial Services. Purchase Financing and Leases. Under certain of such programs, we have provided resale value guarantees or buyback guarantees that may obligate us to repurchase the subject vehicles at pre-determined values.
We also offer vehicle financing arrangements in certain markets for specified vehicle models directly through our local subsidiaries. In August , we launched an insurance product designed for our customers, which offers rates that are often better than other alternatives. This product is currently available in California, and we plan to expand both the markets in which we offer insurance products and our ability to offer such products, as part of our ongoing effort to decrease the total cost of ownership for our customers.
We intend to introduce financial services offerings for customers who purchase standalone energy storage products in the future. We offer various financing options to our solar customers. Our solar loan offers third-party financing to enable the customer to purchase and own a solar energy system. We are not a party to the loan agreement, and the third-party lender has no recourse against us with respect to the loan.
Our solar lease offers customers a fixed monthly fee at rates that typically translate into lower monthly utility bills and an electricity production guarantee. Our solar PPA charges customers a fee per kilowatt-hour based on the amount of electricity produced by our solar energy systems. We monetize the customer payments we receive from our leases and PPAs through funds we have formed with investors. We also intend to introduce financial services offerings for our Solar Roof customers in the future.
Manufacturing Facilities in the Bay Area, California. We manufacture and test our vehicles at our manufacturing facilities in the Bay Area in California, including the Fremont Factory and other local manufacturing facilities. We also manufacture and develop certain parts and components that are critical to our intellectual property and quality standards, such as Model S and Model X battery packs and our proprietary lithium-ion battery cells, at these locations.
Gigafactory Nevada near Reno, Nevada. We have integrated battery material, cell, module and battery pack production for Model 3, Model Y and our energy products in one location at Gigafactory Nevada. In addition, we manufacture vehicle drive units and our energy storage products there.
Gigafactory Nevada allows us to access high volumes of lithium-ion battery cells manufactured by our partner Panasonic there while achieving a significant reduction in the cost of our battery packs. We continue to invest in Gigafactory Nevada to achieve additional output there, including through our agreement with Panasonic. We use Gigafactory New York for the development and production of our Solar Roof and other solar products and components, energy storage components and Supercharger components, and for other lessor-approved functions.
Gigafactory Shanghai in China. We established Gigafactory Shanghai to increase the affordability of our vehicles for customers in local markets by reducing transportation and manufacturing costs and eliminating the impact of unfavorable tariffs. We continue to increase the degree of localized procurement and manufacturing there. Gigafactory Shanghai is representative of our plan to iteratively improve our manufacturing operations as we establish new factories, as we implemented the learnings from our Model 3 ramp at the Fremont Factory to commence and ramp our production there quickly and cost-effectively.
Other Manufacturing. Generally, we continue to expand production capacity at our existing facilities. We also intend to further increase cost-competitiveness in our significant markets by strategically adding local manufacturing, including at Gigafactory Berlin in Germany and Gigafactory Texas in Austin, Texas, which are under construction. Supply Chain. Our products use thousands of purchased parts that are sourced from hundreds of suppliers across the world.
We have developed close relationships with vendors of key parts such as battery cells, electronics and complex vehicle assemblies. Certain components purchased from these suppliers are shared or are similar across many product lines, allowing us to take advantage of pricing efficiencies from economies of scale.
As is the case for most automotive companies, most of our procured components and systems are sourced from single suppliers. Where multiple sources are available for certain key components, we work to qualify multiple suppliers for them where it is sensible to do so in order to minimize production risks owing to disruptions in their supply.
We also mitigate risk by maintaining safety stock for key parts and assemblies and die banks for components with lengthy procurement lead times. Our products use various raw materials including aluminum, steel, cobalt, lithium, nickel and copper. Pricing for these materials is governed by market conditions and may fluctuate due to various factors outside of our control, such as supply and demand and market speculation.
We strive to execute long-term supply contracts for such materials at competitive pricing when feasible, and we currently believe that we have adequate access to raw materials supplies in order to meet the needs of our operations. Governmental Programs, Incentives and Regulations. Globally, both the operation of our business by us and the ownership of our products by our customers are impacted by various government programs, incentives and other arrangements.
Our business and products are also subject to numerous governmental regulations that vary among jurisdictions. Programs and Incentives. We have agreements with the California Alternative Energy and Advanced Transportation Financing Authority that provide multi-year sales tax exclusions on purchases of manufacturing equipment that will be used for specific purposes, including the expansion and ongoing development of electric vehicles and powertrain production in California.
Gigafactory Nevada—Nevada Tax Incentives. In connection with the construction of Gigafactory Nevada, we entered into agreements with the State of Nevada and Storey County in Nevada that provide abatements for specified taxes, discounts to the base tariff energy rates and transferable tax credits in consideration of capital investment and hiring targets that were met at Gigafactory Nevada. These incentives are available until June or June , depending on the incentive.
Under the lease and a related research and development agreement, we are continuing to designate further buildouts at the facility. We are required to comply with certain covenants, including hiring and cumulative investment targets. We have an agreement with the local government of Shanghai for land use rights at Gigafactory Shanghai. Under the terms of the arrangement, we are required to meet a cumulative capital expenditure target and an annual tax revenue target starting at the end of In addition, the Shanghai government has granted to our Gigafactory Shanghai subsidiary in and certain incentives to be used in connection with eligible capital investments at Gigafactory Shanghai.
Our Gigafactory Shanghai subsidiary was granted this lower rate for through Gigafactory Berlin — Pending Grant. We have applied for a grant with the German government to improve the design, chemistry, manufacturing technology and recycling of lithium-ion battery cells for Gigafactory Berlin. The grant was approved by the European Commission in January and its implementation will be subject to a grant agreement with the German government.
Gigafactory Texas — Tax Incentives. Regulatory Credits. We sell these credits to other regulated entities who can use the credits to comply with emission standards, renewable energy procurement standards and other regulatory requirements. Energy Storage System Incentives and Policies. While the regulatory regime for energy storage projects is still under development, there are various policies, incentives and financial mechanisms at the federal, state and local levels that support the adoption of energy storage.
For example, energy storage systems that are charged using solar energy may be eligible for the solar energy-related U. In addition, California and a number of other states have adopted procurement targets for energy storage, and behind-the-meter energy storage systems qualify for funding under the California Self Generation Incentive Program. Solar Energy System Incentives and Policies. These incentives include tax credits, cash grants, tax abatements and rebates.
In particular, Sections 48 and 25D of the U. Vehicle Safety and Testing. Numerous FMVSS apply to our vehicles, such as crash-worthiness requirements, crash avoidance requirements and electric vehicle requirements. While our current vehicles fully comply and we expect that our vehicles in the future will fully comply with all applicable FMVSS with limited or no exemptions, FMVSS are subject to change from time to time.
The U. In addition, federal law requires inclusion of fuel economy ratings, as determined by the U. Our vehicles sold outside of the U. Many of those regulations are different from those applicable in the U. Some of those regulations impact or prevent the rollout of new vehicle features. Self-Driving Vehicles. Generally, laws pertaining to self-driving vehicles are evolving globally, and in some cases may create restrictions on self-driving features that we develop.
While there are currently no federal U. Certain U. This regulatory patchwork increases the legal complexity with respect to self-driving vehicles in the U. In markets that follow the regulations of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, some requirements restrict the design of advanced driver-assistance or self-driving features, which can compromise or prevent their use entirely.
Other applicable laws, both current and proposed, may hinder the path and timeline to introducing self-driving vehicles for sale and use in the markets where they apply. Other key markets, including China, continue to consider self-driving regulation. Any implemented regulations may differ materially from those in the U. Automobile Manufacturer and Dealer Regulation.
To sell vehicles to residents of states where we are not licensed as a dealer, we generally conduct the transfer of title out of the state. Some automobile dealer trade associations have both challenged the legality of our operations in court and used administrative and legislative processes to attempt to prohibit or limit our ability to operate existing stores or expand to new locations.
Certain dealer associations have also actively lobbied state licensing agencies and legislators to interpret existing laws or enact new laws in ways not favorable to our ownership and operation of our own retail and service locations. We expect such challenges to continue, and we intend to actively fight any such efforts.
Battery Safety and Testing. Our battery packs are subject to various U. We conduct testing to demonstrate our compliance with such regulations. We use lithium-ion cells in our high voltage battery packs in our vehicles and energy storage products. The use, storage and disposal of our battery packs are regulated under existing laws and are the subject of ongoing regulatory changes that may add additional requirements in the future.
We have agreements with third party battery recycling companies to recycle our battery packs and we are also piloting our own recycling technology. Solar Energy—General. To operate our systems, we enter into standard interconnection agreements with applicable utilities. Sales of electricity and non-sale equipment leases by third parties, such as our leases, PPAs and subscription agreements, have faced regulatory challenges in some states and jurisdictions.
Solar Energy—Net Metering. Most states in the U. Net metering typically allows solar customers to interconnect their solar energy systems to the utility grid and offset their utility electricity purchases by receiving a bill credit for excess energy generated by their solar energy system that is exported to the grid. In certain jurisdictions, regulators or utilities have reduced or eliminated the benefit available under net metering or have proposed to do so.
We believe that our vehicles compete in the market both based on their traditional segment classification as well as based on their propulsion technology. Competing products typically include internal combustion vehicles from more established automobile manufacturers; however, many established and new automobile manufacturers have entered or have announced plans to enter the market for electric and other alternative fuel vehicles. Overall, we believe these announcements and vehicle introductions promote the development of the electric vehicle market by highlighting the attractiveness of electric vehicles relative to the internal combustion vehicle.
Many major automobile manufacturers have electric vehicles available today in major markets including the U. In addition, several manufacturers offer hybrid vehicles, including plug-in versions. We also believe that there is increasing competition for our vehicle offerings as a platform for delivering self-driving technologies, charging solutions and other features and services, and we expect to compete in this developing market through continued progress on our Autopilot, FSD and neural network capabilities, Supercharger network and our infotainment offerings.
The market for energy storage products is also highly competitive, and both established and emerging companies have introduced products that are similar to our product portfolio or that are alternatives to the elements of our systems. We compete with these companies based on price, energy density and efficiency.
We believe that the specifications and features of our products, our strong brand and the modular, scalable nature of our energy storage products give us a competitive advantage in our markets. The primary competitors to our solar energy business are the traditional local utility companies that supply energy to our potential customers.
We compete with these traditional utility companies primarily based on price and the ease by which customers can switch to electricity generated by our solar energy systems. We also compete with solar energy companies that provide products and services similar to ours.
Many solar energy companies only install solar energy systems, while others only provide financing for these installations. We believe we have a significant expansion opportunity with our offerings and that the regulatory environment is increasingly conducive to the adoption of renewable energy systems. Intellectual Property.
We place a strong emphasis on our innovative approach and proprietary designs which bring intrinsic value and uniqueness to our product portfolio. As part of our business, we seek to protect the underlying intellectual property rights of these innovations and designs such as with respect to patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets and other measures, including through employee and third-party nondisclosure agreements and other contractual arrangements.
For example, we place a high priority on obtaining patents to provide the broadest and strongest possible protection to enable our freedom to operate our innovations and designs within our products and technologies in the electric vehicle market as well as to protect and defend our product portfolio. We have also adopted a patent policy in which we irrevocably pledged that we will not initiate a lawsuit against any party for infringing our patents through activity relating to electric vehicles or related equipment for so long as such party is acting in good faith.
We made this pledge in order to encourage the advancement of a common, rapidly-evolving platform for electric vehicles, thereby benefiting ourselves, other companies making electric vehicles and the world. Human Capital Resources. To date, we have not experienced any work stoppages as a result of labor disputes, and we consider our relationship with our employees to be good. Our key human capital objectives in managing our business include attracting, developing and retaining top talent while integrating diversity, equity and inclusion principles and practices into our core values.
We want to attract a pool of diverse and exceptional candidates and support their career growth once they become employees. Our efforts begin at the entry level with development, apprenticeship and internship programs in local high schools, community colleges and four-year colleges.
In addition, we seek to hire based on talent rather than solely on educational pedigree, and have provided thousands of job openings , including in our local communities, for capable workers from various backgrounds to learn valuable skills in critical operations such as in manufacturing, vehicle service and energy product installation. We also emphasize in our evaluation and career development efforts internal mobility opportunities for employees to drive professional development.
Our goal is a long-term, upward-bound career at Tesla for every employee , which we believe also drives our retention efforts. We also believe that our ability to retain our workforce is dependent on our ability to foster an environment that is sustainably safe, respectful, fair and inclusive of everyone and promotes diversity, equity and inclusion inside and outside of our business.
We are also working on diversity efforts in our supply chain to expand our outreach and support to small- and large-scale suppliers from underrepresented communities to emphasize this culture with our own employees. Available Information. In addition, the SEC maintains a website www. Our website is located at www. The information posted on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form K.
ITEM 1A. You should carefully consider the risks described below together with the other information set forth in this report, which could materially affect our business, financial condition and future results. The risks described below are not the only risks facing our company. Risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial also may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
Government regulations and shifting social behaviors have limited or closed non-essential transportation, government functions, business activities and person-to-person interactions. In some cases, the relaxation of such trends has recently been followed by actual or contemplated returns to stringent restrictions on gatherings or commerce, including in parts of the U. We temporarily suspended operations at each of our manufacturing facilities worldwide for a part of the first half of Some of our suppliers and partners also experienced temporary suspensions before resuming, including Panasonic, which manufactures battery cells for our products at our Gigafactory Nevada.
We also instituted temporary employee furloughs and compensation reductions while our U. Reduced operations or closures at motor vehicle departments, vehicle auction houses and municipal and utility company inspectors have resulted in challenges in or postponements for our new vehicle deliveries, used vehicle sales and energy product deployments. Global trade conditions and consumer trends may further adversely impact us and our industries.
For example, pandemic-related issues have exacerbated port congestion and intermittent supplier shutdowns and delays, resulting in additional expenses to expedite delivery of critical parts. Similarly, increased demand for personal electronics has created a shortfall of microchip supply, and it is yet unknown how we may be impacted.
Sustaining our production trajectory will require the readiness and solvency of our suppliers and vendors, a stable and motivated production workforce and ongoing government cooperation, including for travel and visa allowances. The contingencies inherent in the construction of and ramp at new facilities such as Gigafactory Shanghai, Gigafactory Berlin and Gigafactory Texas may be exacerbated by these challenges. We cannot predict the duration or direction of current global trends, the sustained impact of which is largely unknown, is rapidly evolving and has varied across geographic regions.
Ultimately, we continue to monitor macroeconomic conditions to remain flexible and to optimize and evolve our business as appropriate, and we will have to accurately project demand and infrastructure requirements globally and deploy our production, workforce and other resources accordingly. If current global market conditions continue or worsen, or if we cannot or do not maintain operations at a scope that is commensurate with such conditions or are later required to or choose to suspend such operations again, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results may be harmed.
We may experience delays in launching and ramping the production of our products and features, or we may be unable to control our manufacturing costs. We have previously experienced and may in the future experience launch and production ramp delays for new products and features. For example, we encountered unanticipated supplier issues that led to delays during the ramp of Model X and experienced challenges with a supplier and with ramping full automation for certain of our initial Model 3 manufacturing processes.
In addition, we may introduce in the future new or unique manufacturing processes and design features for our products. There is no guarantee that we will be able to successfully and timely introduce and scale such processes or features. In particular, our future business depends in large part on increasing the production of mass-market vehicles including Model 3 and Model Y, which we are planning to achieve through multiple factories worldwide.
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Seed phrases, like all backups, can store any amount of bitcoins. It's a concerning idea to possibly have enough money to purchase the entire building just sitting on a sheet of paper without any protection. For this reason many wallets make it possible to encrypt a seed phrase with a password.
The password can be used to create a two-factor seed phrase where both "something you have" plus "something you know" is required to unlock the bitcoins. This works by the wallet creating a seed phrase and asking the user for a password. Then both the seed phrase and extra word are required to recover the wallet.
The BIP39 standard defines a way of passphrase-protecting a seed phrase. A similar scheme is also used in the Electrum standard. If a passphrase is not present, an empty string "" is used instead. Warning : Forgetting this password will result in the bitcoin wallet and any contained money being lost. Do not overestimate your ability to remember passphrases especially when you may not use it very often.
Warning : The seed phrase password should not be confused with the password used to encrypt the wallet file on disk. This is probably why many wallets call it an extension word instead of a password. Most people write down phrases on paper but they can be stored in many other ways such as memorizing , engraving or stamping on metal, writing in the margins of a book, chiseling into a stone tablet or any other creative and inventive way.
In the past many people have accidentally lost bitcoins because of failed backups, mistyped letters, forgotten hard drives, or corrupted SSD devices. It's also important to protect the seed from accidental loss. It could be a good idea to write some words of explanation on the same paper as the seed phrase. If storing for the long term you may forget what a phrase is how it should be treated. A sample explanation that can be adapted is:.
Through bitter experience it has been found that one of the most practical storage mediums is pencil and paper. The private keys of a bitcoin wallet are encoded into random words from a dictionary which can be written down. If your hard drive crashes, you can find the paper with the seed phrase and restore the entire wallet. As seed phrases use natural language words, they have good error correction.
If one or two letters are missing the word can often still be deduced. For storing on paper writing with pencil is much better than pen  . Paper should be acid-free or archival paper, and stored in the dark avoiding extremes of heat and moisture   . Seed phrases can also be stamped or engraved into metal which is significantly more durable than paper. Metal backups are recommended if the threat model involves fire, water, extremes of temperature or physical stress. Some methods that are not recommended are: storing in a file on a computer including online , or storing online.
Some people get the idea to split up their phrases, like storing 6 words in one location and the other 6 words in another location. This is a bad idea and should not be done, because if one set of 6 words is discovered then it becomes far easier to bruteforce the rest of the phrase.
Storing bitcoins in multiple locations like this should be done with multisignature wallets instead. The Shamir Secret Sharing algorithm is sometimes promoted as a way to divide control of bitcoins, but in practice there are many pitfalls and tradeoffs that make it not worth it. Another bad idea is to add random decoy words that are somehow meaningful to you, and later remove them to be left only with the 12 word phrase.
The phrase words come from a known dictionary see next section , so anybody can use that dictionary to weed out the decoy words. It's possible but risky to memorize Brainwallets seed phrases. This should probably only be done in situations that really need it, such as crossing a hostile border where one expects to be searched.
Generally a seed phrase only works with the same wallet software that created it. If storing for a long period of time it's a good idea to write the name of the wallet too. The BIP39 English word list has each word being uniquely identified by the first four letters, which can be useful when space to write them is scarce.